Chapter 3: Sports and Nutrition
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What is ‘Bulimia’? [Delhi 2016]
Bulimia is an eating disorder under psychological condition in which a person overeats uncontrollably and follows this with behaviour designed to prevent weight gain, e.g. over – exercising and purging.
What is Food Intolerance? [Delhi 2016]
A sensitivity to, or an inability to digest, a particular food, ingredient or substance, which means that it should be excluded from the diet.
What are the Micro Nutrients? [Delhi Outside 2016]
Micro Nutrients are Nutrients required in small quantify
1). Vitamins: A, D, E, K, C, B Complex
2) Minerals: Sodium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulphur, Iron
3) Trace Elements: Copper, Iodine, Chromium, Cobalt
Enlist two sources for calcium and iron separately. [Delhi 2015]
Calcium sources: Cheese, Milk, Orange Juice, Eggs, Yogurt, grams, Leafy Vegetable and cereals.
Iron sources: liver, meat, orange juice, egg, dry fruits, spinach, banana and green leafy vegetables.
List down various non-nutritive components of diet [All India 2015]
(i) Artificial sweetener
(ii) Colour compounds
(iv) Plant compounds
(vi) Flavour compounds
Define Balanced diet. [Delhi 2014, All India 2011]
Nutritive components of diet are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. All these nutrients constitute a balanced diet of a person. They are also called primary components of diet.
What are Carbohydrates? [Delhi 2011]
Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. They provide quick energy to the body and are not stored in body for long. Main sources of carbohydrates are bread, rice, potatoes, cereals, etc.
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What do you understand by Food myths? Discuss briefly about various Food myths. [Delhi 2016]
Food myths mean a legendary story about food with or without a determinable basic of fact or a natural explanation. What to eat, when to eat, and how often to eat are such questions which usually confuse.
Some food myths are as follows:
- Potatoes make you fat
- Drinking water in between your meals will mess up your digestion
- Fat free products will help you in losing weight
- Egg increases cholesterol levels
- The peel of fruits & vegetables contains no nutrients
- Having milk immediately after eating fish
- Starve yourself if you want to lose weight
- Eating ghee after pregnancy
- Exercise makes you to eat more
- It’s necessary to have Carbohydrate – load before races
- All sports drinks are the same
- Supplement are necessary for maximum performance
Write briefly about protein as an essential component of diet. [Delhi Outside 2016]
Protein contains elements carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulphar. Proteins are nutrients that help to build the body and make new cells. They help us repair worn-out tissues. They are especially important for growing children. They are called body building food. Milk, eggs, cheese, pulses, meat and fish have lots of proteins.
Briefly explain the function and resources of three fat soluble vitamins. [Delhi 2015]
Fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E and K.
Functions: vitamins increase immunity power in our body against disease and also give their important contribution for general development of body.
Sources of Vitamin A: ghee, milk, curd, egg yolk, fish, tomato, papaya, green vegetables, orange, spinach, carrot, pumpkin etc.
Sources of Vitamin D: egg yolk, fish, sunlight. Vegetables, cod liver oil, milk, cream, butter, tomato, carrot etc.
Sources of Vitamin E: green vegetables, kidney, liver, heart cotton seed, sprouts seeds, coconut oil, yolk, dry and fresh fruits, milk, meat, butter and maize.
Sources of Vitamin K: cauliflower, spinach, cabbage, tomatoes, potato, green vegetables, wheat, egg and meat etc.
Elaborate the important nutrients/elements of a balanced diet. [All India 2011]
Elements of a Balanced diet: There are many nutrients in the food but these are mainly grouped into six classes namely carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and water. The energy value of food is measured in heat units called calorie. The mixture that we require is 57% carbohydrates, 30% fats and 13% proteins. Carbohydrates; proteins and Fats to supply us energy. The energy yield per gram is as follows:
(i) Carbohydrate – 4 calories
(ii) Fat – 9 calories
(iii) Protein – 4 calories
Basic elements of our diet are:
(i) Carbohydrates: The main source of energy comes from carbohydrates.
(ii) Proteins: They provide essential growth and repair of muscles and other body tissues.
(iii) Fats: These are a source of energy which is important in relation to fat – soluble Vitamins.
(iv) Vitamins: These are required in our body in very small amount. They are required for various metabolic process. They are divided into two groups – fat soluble and water soluble vitamins.
(v) Minerals: These contain elements needed in our body in small quantities. These are essential for proper growth and functioning of our body.
(vi) Water: Water is essential to normal body function. It serves as a vehicle for carrying other nutrients.
Write in brief about important minerals requirement. [Delhi 2015]
Minerals are very important nutritive components of food. Minerals are helpful for health and general development of the body, proper functioning of the muscles, formation of teeth, clotting of blood and in maintaining the balance of acid and base in the body. The main minerals are stated below:
Calcium: Calcium is helpful in the formation of teeth and bones. It helps in clotting of blood. It also maintains the balance between acid and base. Its deficiency causes numerous diseases like asthma, rickets and skin diseases like scabies, eczema and chilblains etc. Milk, cheese, yolk, orange and green vegetables have rich amount of calcium.
Phosphorus: Phosphorus is helpful in the formation of teeth and bones. It is found in egg, fish, meat, milk, liver and in unpolished rice.
Iron: Iron has an important role to play in the human body. It plays an important function in the formation of haemoglobin. It is also helpful in metabolising fats, carbohydrates and protein. Its absence in body may cause anaemia. The main source of iron is liver. Besides this, it is found in enough quantity in meat, egg, dry fruits and green vegetables.
Iodine: For the creativity as well as activity of thyroid gland, the iodine is essential. The deficiency of iodine may cause goitre disease. Its deficiency may hinder the growth and development. A child may remain a dwarf. The skin becomes rough and fatty. Its deficiency may stop the growth of hair. Generally, iodine is not taken in sufficient quantity by those persons who live too far from the sea. It is found in rich quantity in sea fish. Iodized salt is the main source of iodine.
Sodium: Sodium maintains the balance of acid and base. It also maintains the balance of water in the body. Sodium also helps in the contraction of muscles. Sodium is available in enough quantity in common salts. Besides this, it is found in milk and milk products, meat, eggs, etc.
Potassium: The deficiency of potassium weakens the muscles of the body and the individual becomes lethargic. An individual may fall prey to Addison’s disease. It is mostly found in carrot, beet root, onion, tomato, orange, mango, banana and apple, etc.
Sulphur: It is helpful for the cells of body. It is also helpful for the formation of hair and nails. It is found in egg, radish, pulses, carrot, peas, spinach, tomato, cabbage and cereals.
In sports such as Boxing and Wrestling, the players tend to lose weight sharply. Explain the Pitfalls of dieting. [CBSE Sample Paper 2015]
In boxing and wrestling the players tend to lose weight sharply because they want to compete in lower weight category than their actual weight. A few weeks before the competition, they undergo vigorous training programme along with diet control. They wear weight jacket and go for long, run. Along with this they reduce the intake of proteins and fats in their diet. This reduces their weight instantly or sharply. The pitfalls are:
(i) Sudden weight gain: Weight loss through exercises is a good thing but weight loss through dieting is very harmful. It makes your physique worse because after dieting when you came to your original eating pattern your body starts gaining more fat than it used to before dieting.
(ii) Dietary deficiency: When you cut short your diet, source of the major nutrients such as carbohydrates and proteins do not meet the adequate amount. This can lead to many deficiencies e.g., there are dark circles under eyes and the person looks pale. Then he must go for anaemia check-up, etc. as these are the side-effects of dieting.
(iii) Health Problem: Sudden weight loss because of reduced calorie intake can lead to exhaustion. It has also negative effect. People think that skipping a meal saves calories but it will end up with some health problem.
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